15 feb

Sexual transmission of Lyme disease: challenging the tickborne disease paradigm

Sexual transmission of Lyme disease: challenging the tickborne disease paradigm. – PubMed – NCBI

Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2015;13(11):1303-6. doi: 10.1586/14787210.2015.1081056. Epub 2015 Aug 26. Editorial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov’t

Lyme disease caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi has become a major worldwide epidemic. In this article, we explore the clinical, epidemiological and experimental evidence for sexual transmission of Lyme disease in animal models and humans. Although the likelihood of sexual transmission of the Lyme spirochete remains speculative, the possibility of Lyme disease transmission via intimate human contact merits further study.

Volledige tekst: Sexual transmission of Lyme disease challenging the tickborne disease paradigm

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15 feb

DNA-analyse maakt teek kwetsbaar

Uit DNA-analyse van de teek, het beestje dat de ziekte van Lyme overbrengt, blijkt dat er middelen ontwikkeld kunnen worden die alleen teken doden.

De teek kan wel inpakken, als je het internationale team van 93 wetenschappers mag geloven dat de DNA-volgorde van de bloedzuiger analyseerde. Deze week schrijven ze inNature Communications dat het genoom van de hertenteek (Ixodes scapularis) veel nieuwe aanknopingspunten bevat om het plaagdier het leven zuur te maken.

De hertenteek verspreidt in de Verenigde Staten de ziekte van Lyme. Dat gebeurt als de teek bloed zuigt bij zoogdieren, zoals de mens. Het speeksel van de teek kan besmet zijn met de bacterie Borrelia burgdorferi. Zo’n infectie kan uitmonden in lyme, een chronische ziekte met pijnlijke gewrichtsontstekingen en neurologische problemen. In onze streken leeft de nauw verwante schapenteekIxodes ricinus. Ook deze teek kan lyme overbrengen.

Een rode, ringvormige uitslag op de huid is een kenmerk van een borrelia-infectie. Het risico daarvan is in de laatste jaren iets toegenomen, want er zijn meer teken en een groter percentage daarvan is geïnfecteerd met de ziekmakende borreliabacterie.

Het genoomproject van de teek, dat bijna tien jaar in beslag nam, helpt de biologische kennis van de teek flink vooruit. Die liep achter op wat biologen van bijvoorbeeld muggen weten, terwijl teken meer ziekteverwekkers overbrengen dan de vlo, vlieg of mug. De bacteriën en virussen die zij verspreiden, maken jaarlijks duizenden slachtoffers onder mens en dier.

Onschadelijk maken

Genetisch zijn teken zeer goed uitgerust om efficiënt gebruik te maken van hun warmbloedige gastheren. De DNA-analyse onthult dat tekenspeeksel honderden antistollingsenzymen, immuunonderdrukkers, pijnstillers en antibacteriële eiwitten bevat. De parasiet kan uren- tot dagenlang van zijn gastheer profiteren zonder dat het bloed rond de tekenbeet stolt of de afweer de teek te lijf gaat. Tekenspeeksel is veel complexer dan muggenspeeksel.

De onderzoekers identificeerden de genen die de teek nodig heeft om wel honderd keer haar oorspronkelijke grootte te krijgen tijdens een bloedmaaltijd. Wie een stofje vindt waarmee die genen (of hun genproducten) worden geblokkeerd, heeft een mooi antitekenmiddel in handen, schrijven de onderzoekers.

Dat geldt ook voor de genen die betrokken zijn bij de vertering van bloed. Het ijzerhoudende en zuurstofbindende heem uit het bloed is weliswaar giftig voor de teek, maar het dier heeft diverse genen om het onschadelijk te maken. Uiteindelijk heeft de teek het heem nodig voor zijn eigen stofwisseling, want het dier kan zelf geen zuurstoftransporterende moleculen maken.

De teek gaf haar genetische geheimen niet makkelijk prijs. In het wild doorloopt de parasiet verschillende ontwikkelingsstadia, ieder met een eigen profiel van genactiviteit. Dat is allemaal in kaart gebracht. Intrigerend is dat twintig procent van alle gevonden genen uniek lijkt voor teken. Dat wil zeggen dat er daarvan geen equivalent in insecten of zoogdieren bestaat. De onderzoekers hebben nog geen idee wat de functie van die genen is.

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11 feb

Lyme disease leads to immunosuppression

Twenty studies revealing immunosuppression from Lyme disease.

It is very clear that Lyme disease is a disease of immunosuppression for a vast majority of Lyme patients. The so-called “Lyme arthritis” only effects a minority of patients and is the only kind of Lyme officially recognized. Immune suppression is the most damaging symptom of Lyme and is not being addressed by ANY infectious disease organization. It allows other infections to become active and remain chronic.  It is primarily other viruses and bacterial infections which does the majority of damage.

Now 20 studies which reveal the widespread immune suppression from Lyme disease. Remember, if you have Lyme disease, a vaccination is dangerous to you. You cannot mount an adequate immune response. Your doctor will deny this is true because he simply does what he is told. It is highly unlikely that he reads peer-reviewed research like these studies here.

1994 Feb – Antigens of Lyme disease of spirochaete Borrelia burgdorferi inhibits antigen or mitogen-induced lymphocyte proliferation.
“These results have demonstrated an immune suppressive mechanism of B. burgdorferi. The magnitude of host immune responses may be dependent on the degree of suppression which is related to the spirochaete quantity and their length of presence in the host.”
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8173554

1997 Jul – Why is chronic Lyme borreliosis chronic?
“Recent findings indicate that the most important cell for antigen presentation, the epidermal Langerhans cell (LC), is invaded by B. burgdorferi in early Lyme borreliosis. … Numbers of CD1a+ LCs were reduced in erythema migrans but normal or slightly elevated in ACA. In both diseases there was also a marked downregulation of major histocompatibility complex class II molecules on LCs, as measured by staining of human leukocyte antigen DR. This phenomenon might be a mechanism that protects against the presentation of autoantigens and may be the cause of the impaired capacity of LCs to eliminate B. burgdorferi antigens, thus explaining why CLB is chronic.”
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9233667

1998 Jun – Borrelia burgdorferi Stimulates the Production of Interleukin-10 in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells from Uninfected Humans and Rhesus Monkeys
“These results demonstrate that B. burgdorferi can stimulate the production of an antiinflammatory, immunosuppressive cytokine in naive cells and suggest that IL-10 may play a role both in avoidance by the spirochete of deleterious immune responses and in limiting the inflammation that the spirochete is able to induce.”
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC108257

2000 Jul – Modulation of lymphocyte proliferative responses by a canine Lyme disease vaccine of recombinant outer surface protein A (OspA).
Gary Wormser, lead author of the Lyme disease guideline opinions is admitting OspA, the antigen in the Lyme vaccine and a surface protein, induces immunosuppression in a canine model of Lyme disease.
“…OspA interferes with the response of lymphocytes to proliferative stimuli including a blocking of cell cycle phase progression. … Future studies designed to delete the particular region or component of the OspA molecule responsible for this effect may lead to improved vaccine preparations.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10865170

NOTES:
lymphocytes – immune system white blood cells.
cell cycle phase progression – replication.

2000 Dec – Early induction of gamma interferon and interleukin-10 production in draining lymph nodes from mice infected with Borrelia burgdorferi.
“The differential effect of IL-10 on IFN-gamma production in C57BL/6J and C3H/HeJ mice suggests that IL-10 is probably involved in the regulation of IFN-gamma production by LN cells during infection and may be at the root of the differential susceptibility to Lyme arthritis in these two strains of mice.”
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11083848

2003 Jul – Borrelia burgdorferi-induced tolerance as a model of persistence via immunosuppression. Summary
“…we characterized tolerance induced by B. burgdorferi, describing a model of desensitization which might mirror the immunosuppression recently attributed to the persistence of Borrelia in immunocompetent hosts.”
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12819085

2003 Sep – Interaction of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato with Epstein-Barr virus in lymphoblastoid cells.
“Since the possibility of interruption of latent Epstein-Barr virus infection has been suggested by the induction of the lytic virus cycle with chemical substances, other viruses, and by immunosuppression, we hypothesized that the same effect might happen in B. burgdorferi sensu lato infection as happens in Lyme disease patients with positive serology for both agents. … Demonstration of such findings must be interpreted cautiously, but may prove a mixed borrelial and viral cause of severe neurological disease.”
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12630667

2006 Mar 15 – Borrelia burgdorferi lipoprotein-mediated TLR2 stimulation causes the down-regulation of TLR5 in human monocytes.
“We show that stimulation of human monocytes with B. burgdorferi lysate, lipidated outer surface protein A, and triacylated lipopeptide Pam3CysSerLys4 results in the up-regulation of both TLR2 and TLR1 but the down-regulation of TLR5, the receptor for bacterial flagellin, and that this effect is mediated via TLR2. … In addition, TLR2 stimulation rendered cells hyporesponsive to a TLR5 agonist. …”
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16479520

2006 Jun – Borrelia burgdorferi Induces TLR1 and TLR2 in human microglia and peripheral blood monocytes but differentially regulates HLA-class II expression.
IMPORTANT: The difference in HLAs cause the two types of Lyme. The hypersensitivity type ( the “Lyme arthritis” ), and immunosuppressed type. Dr Alan Steere completely denied the existence of the immunosuppressed outcome by deliberately designing the Lyme two-tier test ( Dearborn criteria ) so the neurological outcome would test negative. Those patients are sent off to psychiatrists and told they are crazy.
“These results show that signaling through TLR1/2 in response to B. burgdorferi can elicit opposite immunoregulatory effects in blood and in brain immune cells, which could play a role in the different susceptibility of these compartments to infection.”
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16783164

2006 Oct – Interleukin-10 anti-inflammatory response to Borrelia burgdorferi, the agent of Lyme disease: a possible role for suppressors of cytokine signaling 1 and 3.
“… Because it is known that cytokine signaling are induced by IL-10 and that B. burgdorferi and its lipoproteins most likely interact via TLR2 or the heterodimers TLR2/1 and/or TLR2/6, we hypothesized that cytokine signaling are induced by IL-10 and B. burgdorferi and its lipoproteins in macrophages and that cytokine signaling may mediate the inhibition by IL-10 of concomitantly elicited cytokines. We report here that mouse J774 macrophages incubated with IL-10 and added B. burgdorferi spirochetes (freeze-thawed, live, or sonicated) or lipidated outer surface protein A (L-OspA) augmented their SOCS1/SOCS3 mRNA and protein expression, with SOCS3 being more abundant. Pam(3)Cys, a synthetic lipopeptide, also induced SOCS1/SOCS3 expression under these conditions, but unlipidated OspA was ineffective…”
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16988256

2007 Jan – Decreased up-regulation of the interleukin-12Rbeta2-chain and interferon-gamma secretion and increased number of forkhead box P3-expressing cells in patients with a history of chronic Lyme borreliosis compared with asymptomatic Borrelia-exposed individuals.
“… In addition, regulatory T cells might also play a role, by immunosuppression, in the development of chronic Lyme borreliosis.”
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17177959

2008 Mar – Viable Borrelia burgdorferi Enhances Interleukin-10 Production and Suppresses Activation of Murine Macrophages
“B. burgdorferi induces IL-10 in vivo … Together, these results suggest that viable B. burgdorferi can suppress early primary macrophages Mφ responses during infection by causing increased release of IL-10.”
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2258815

2010 – Our experience with examination of antibodies against antigens of Borrelia burgdorferi in patients with suspected lyme disease.
“RESULTS: All patients had specific antiborrelial antibodies confirmed by using the westernblot in spite of negative ELISA. Immunological investigations revealed a deficiency of cellular immunity in all patients and in a part of them (15.6%) a deficiency of humoral immunity was also found. The presence of different types of autoantibodies was detected in 17 (53.1%) patients.
CONCLUSION: In patients with persisting difficulties that could be associated with Lyme disease, it is necessary to use the westernblot test which could prove the presence of specific antibodies. It is probably due to the very low production of specific antibodies caused also by the status of immune deficiency detected in all our patients (Tab. 1, Ref. 11).”
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20437826

2011 May 26 – PLOS Pathogens: Lymphoadenopathy during Lyme Borreliosis Is Caused by Spirochete Migration-Induced Specific B Cell Activation
“Together, these findings suggest a novel evasion strategy for B. burgdorferi: subversion of the quality of a strongly induced, potentially protective borrelia-specific antibody response via B. burdorferi’s accumulation in lymph nodes.”
http://journals.plos.org/plospathogens/article?id=10.1371/journal.ppat.1002066

2011 Dec – Interleukin-10 alters effector functions of multiple genes induced by Borrelia burgdorferi in macrophages to regulate Lyme disease inflammation.
“Our data show that IL-10 alters effectors induced by B. burgdorferi in macrophages to control concomitantly elicited inflammatory responses. Moreover, for the first time, this study provides global insight into potential mechanisms used by IL-10 to control Lyme disease inflammation.”
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21947773

2012 Feb 1 – TLR2 signaling depletes IRAK1 and inhibits induction of type I IFN by TLR7/9.
“The inhibitory effect of TLR2 was not dependent on new protein synthesis or intercellular signaling. IL-1R-associated kinase 1 (IRAK1) was depleted rapidly (within 10 min) by TLR2 agonist, but not until later (e.g., 2 h) by TLR9 agonist. Because IRAK1 is required for TLR7/9-induced IFN-I production, we propose that TLR2 signaling induces rapid depletion of IRAK1, which impairs IFN-I induction by TLR7/9. This novel mechanism, whereby TLR2 inhibits IFN-I induction by TLR7/9, may shape immune responses to microbes that express ligands for both TLR2 and TLR7/TLR9, or responses to bacteria/virus coinfection.”
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22227568

2012 Oct – Different patterns of expression and of IL-10 modulation of inflammatory mediators from macrophages of Lyme disease-resistant and -susceptible mice.
“Neutralization of endogenously produced IL-10 increased production of inflammatory mediators, notably by macrophages of C57 mice, which also displayed more IL-10 than C3H macrophages. The distinct patterns of pro-inflammatory mediator production, along with TLR2/TLR1 expression, and regulation in macrophages from Lyme disease-resistant and -susceptible mice suggests itself as a blueprint to further investigate differential pathogenesis of Lyme disease.”
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23024745

2013 Aug – IRAK4 kinase activity is not required for induction of endotoxin tolerance but contributes to TLR2-mediated tolerance.

“Prior exposure to LPS (lipopolysaccharide) induces “endotoxin tolerance” that reprograms TLR4 responses to subsequent LPS challenge by altering expression of inflammatory mediators. Endotoxin tolerance is thought to limit the excessive cytokine storm and prevent tissue damage during sepsis but renders the host immunocompromised and susceptible to secondary infections….”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23695305
2013 Dec 19 – Borrelia burgdorferi Elicited-IL-10 Suppresses the Production of Inflammatory Mediators, Phagocytosis, and Expression of Co-Stimulatory Receptors by Murine Macrophages and/or Dendritic Cells
“… The IL-10 levels appear able to block many of the immune functions of these anaphase-promoting complexes (needed for cell replication) that should be critical for controlling Bb infection. … Because macrophages (removes dead/dying cells and dibris) and dendritic (skin) cells are believed to be largely responsible for moderating the early immune responses against Bb deposited into the skin, these findings suggest this IL-10 elicitation may be largely responsible for the dysregulated early leukocyte responses and delayed adaptive responses that are believed to have a major influence in the ability of Bb to efficiently disseminate and persist … “
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3868605

 

2015 Jan – CD4+ T cells promote antibody production but not sustained affinity maturation during Borrelia burgdorferi infection.
“The data further suggest that B. burgdorferi infection drives the humoral response away from protective, high-affinity, and long-lived antibody responses and toward the rapid induction of strongly induced, short-lived antibodies of limited efficacy.”
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25312948

2015 July 2 – PLOS Pathogens: Suppression of Long-Lived Humoral Immunity Following Borrelia burgdorferi Infection
The Lyme disease bacteria suppresses the immune system. Immunosuppression is one of the worst kinds of damage one can get from an infectious disease. Eventually you contract other infections and they become active for years and decades. Infections like EBV, other herpesviruses, and mycoplasma infections slowly deplete, exhaust, and damage your entire body and mind.

“This data illustrate the potent, if temporal, immune suppression induced by Borrelia-infection. Collectively, the data reveal a new mechanism by which B. burgdorferi subverts the adaptive immune response.”
http://journals.plos.org/plospathogens/article?id=10.1371/journal.ppat.1004976

This is further information on the above study.

2015 Jul 15 – Lyme disease subverts immune system, prevents future protection
““We demonstrated that an animal infected with Borrelia burgdorferi, the corkscrew-shaped bacteria that cause Lyme disease, launches only a short-lived immune response, and that protective immunity against repeat infections quickly wanes,” said Nicole Baumgarth, a professor in the School of Veterinary Medicine and an authority on immune response to infectious diseases at the UC Davis Center for Comparative Medicine.

“This study also suggests a possible mechanism responsible for the disappearance of antibodies following infection and subsequent treatment with antibiotics,” she said.

The bacteria initially trigger a strong immune response in an infected animal, but findings from this study indicate that the bacteria soon cause structural abnormalities in “germinal centers” — sites in lymph nodes and other lymph tissues that are key to producing a long-term protective immune response.

For months after infection, those germinal centers fail to produce the specific cells — memory B cells and antibody-producing plasma cells — that are crucial for producing lasting immunity. In effect, the bacteria prevent the animal’s immune system from forming a “memory” of the invading bacteria …”
www.scienceblog.com/79136/lyme-disease-subverts-immune-system-prevents-future-protection

 

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